2,2,2-trifluoroethanol

CAS No. 75-89-8

Formula: C2H3F3O
Basic Info

2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol is the organic compound with the formula CF3CH2OH. Also known as TFE or trifluoroethyl alcohol, this colourless, water-miscible liquid has a smell reminiscent of ethanol. Due to the electronegativity of the trifluoromethyl group, this alcohol exhibits a stronger acidic character compared to ethanol. Thus, TFE forms stable complexes also with heterocycles (e.g. THF or pyridine) through hydrogen bonding.

Formula
C2H3F3O
Molecular Weight
100.04
Exact Mass
100.014
LogP
0.541
PSA
20.23
Synonyms

Trifluoroethyl alcohol

2,2,2-trifluoro-ethanol

Ethanol, 2,2,2-trifluoro-

Fluorinol 85

2,2,2-trifluoroethyl alcohol

Perfluoro-1,1-dihydroethanol

trifluoro ethanol

2,2,2-Trifluoroethan-1-Ol

1,1,1-trifluoroethanol

2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol

2,2,2-TRIFLUORO-1-P-TOLYL-ETHYLAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE

tfetoh

Ethanol,2,2,2-trifluoro

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Properties
Appearance & Physical State
Colorless liquid
Density
1.393
Boiling Point
77-80ºC
Melting Point
-45ºC
Flash Point
29ºC
Refractive Index
1.2907
Stability
Stable. Flammable - note wide explosion limits. Moisture sensitive. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, sodium, potassium.
Storage Condition
Store at RT.
Vapor Density
3.5 (vs air)
Vapor Pressure
70 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
Safety Info
RTECS
KM5250000
Safety Statements
S16-S36/37/39-S45
WGK Germany
1
Risk Statements
R10; R20/21/22; R38; R41; R62
HS Code
2905590090
RIDADR
UN 1993/1986
Hazard Class
3
Packing Group
III
Caution Statement
P261; P280; P301 + P310; P305 + P351 + P338; P311
Hazard Codes
MSDS
SDS 1.0
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SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names Trifluoroethyl alcohol

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Intermediates,Paint additives and coating additives not described by other categories
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

Company MOLBASE (Shanghai) Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Address Floor 4 & 5, Building 12, No. 1001 North Qinzhou Road,
Xuhui District, Shanghai, China
Telephone +86(21)64956998
Fax +86(21)54365166

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number +86-400-6021-666
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Flammable liquids, Category 3

Acute toxicity - Oral, Category 3

Serious eye damage, Category 1

Acute toxicity - Inhalation, Category 3

Reproductive toxicity, Category 1B

Specific target organ toxicity – repeated exposure, Category 2

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Danger

Hazard statement(s)

H226 Flammable liquid and vapour

H301+H331 Toxic if swallowed or if inhaled

H318 Causes serious eye damage

H360 May damage fertility or the unborn child

H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P210 Keep away from heat, hot surfaces, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources. No smoking.

P233 Keep container tightly closed.

P240 Ground and bond container and receiving equipment.

P241 Use explosion-proof [electrical/ventilating/lighting/...] equipment.

P242 Use non-sparking tools.

P243 Take action to prevent static discharges.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.

P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

P201 Obtain special instructions before use.

P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.

P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

Response

P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water [or shower].

P370+P378 In case of fire: Use ... to extinguish.

P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P330 Rinse mouth.

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P311 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…

P308+P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/ attention.

P314 Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell.

Storage

P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.

P405 Store locked up.

P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

3.Composition/information on ingredients

3.1 Substances

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number Concentration
2,2,2-trifluoroethanol 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol 75-89-8 none 100%

4.First-aid measures

4.1 Description of necessary first-aid measures

General advice

Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

If inhaled

If breathed in, move person into fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. Consult a physician.

In case of skin contact

Wash off with soap and plenty of water. Consult a physician.

In case of eye contact

Rinse thoroughly with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and consult a physician.

If swallowed

Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water. Consult a physician.

4.2 Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

no data available

4.3 Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

no data available

5.Fire-fighting measures

5.1 Extinguishing media

Suitable extinguishing media

Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.

5.2 Specific hazards arising from the chemical

no data available

5.3 Special protective actions for fire-fighters

Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

6.Accidental release measures

6.1 Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8.

6.2 Environmental precautions

Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. Do not let product enter drains. Discharge into the environment must be avoided.

6.3 Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

Pick up and arrange disposal. Sweep up and shovel. Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal.

7.Handling and storage

7.1 Precautions for safe handling

Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2.

7.2 Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

Store in cool place. Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place.

8.Exposure controls/personal protection

8.1 Control parameters

Occupational Exposure limit values

no data available

Biological limit values

no data available

8.2 Appropriate engineering controls

Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.

8.3 Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

Eye/face protection

Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Skin protection

Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

Respiratory protection

Wear dust mask when handling large quantities.

Thermal hazards

no data available

9.Physical and chemical properties

Physical state Colorless liquid
Colour no data available
Odour no data available
Melting point/ freezing point -44°C(lit.)
Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range 77-80°C(lit.)
Flammability no data available
Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit no data available
Flash point 29°C
Auto-ignition temperature ~480°C
Decomposition temperature no data available
pH no data available
Kinematic viscosity no data available
Solubility no data available
Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value) no data available
Vapour pressure 70 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
Density and/or relative density 1.391g/mLat 20°C
Relative vapour density 3.5 (vs air)
Particle characteristics no data available

10.Stability and reactivity

10.1 Reactivity

no data available

10.2 Chemical stability

Stable under recommended storage conditions.

10.3 Possibility of hazardous reactions

no data available

10.4 Conditions to avoid

no data available

10.5 Incompatible materials

no data available

10.6 Hazardous decomposition products

no data available

11.Toxicological information

Acute toxicity

  • Oral: no data available
  • Inhalation: no data available
  • Dermal: no data available

Skin corrosion/irritation

no data available

Serious eye damage/irritation

no data available

Respiratory or skin sensitization

no data available

Germ cell mutagenicity

no data available

Carcinogenicity

no data available

Reproductive toxicity

no data available

STOT-single exposure

no data available

STOT-repeated exposure

no data available

Aspiration hazard

no data available

12.Ecological information

12.1 Toxicity

  • Toxicity to fish: no data available
  • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: no data available
  • Toxicity to algae: no data available
  • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

12.2 Persistence and degradability

no data available

12.3 Bioaccumulative potential

no data available

12.4 Mobility in soil

no data available

12.5 Other adverse effects

no data available

13.Disposal considerations

13.1 Disposal methods

Product

The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

Contaminated packaging

Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

14.Transport information

14.1 UN Number

ADR/RID: UN1986 IMDG: UN1986 IATA: UN1986

14.2 UN Proper Shipping Name

ADR/RID: ALCOHOLS, FLAMMABLE, TOXIC, N.O.S.
IMDG: ALCOHOLS, FLAMMABLE, TOXIC, N.O.S.
IATA: ALCOHOLS, FLAMMABLE, TOXIC, N.O.S.

14.3 Transport hazard class(es)

ADR/RID: 6.1 IMDG: 6.1 IATA: 6.1

14.4 Packing group, if applicable

ADR/RID: III IMDG: III IATA: III

14.5 Environmental hazards

ADR/RID: no IMDG: no IATA: no

14.6 Special precautions for user

no data available

14.7 Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code

no data available

15.Regulatory information

15.1 Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number
2,2,2-trifluoroethanol 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol 75-89-8 none
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) Listed.
EC Inventory Listed.
United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Listed.
China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015 Listed.
New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Listed.
Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS) Listed.
Vietnam National Chemical Inventory Not Listed.
Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC) Listed.

16.Other information

Information on revision

Creation Date Aug 12, 2017
Revision Date Aug 12, 2017

Abbreviations and acronyms

  • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
  • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
  • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
  • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
  • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
  • TWA: Time Weighted Average
  • STEL: Short term exposure limit
  • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
  • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
  • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%

References

  • IPCS - The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC), website: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.home
  • HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank, website: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/hsdb.htm
  • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer, website: http://www.iarc.fr/
  • eChemPortal - The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances by OECD, website: http://www.echemportal.org/echemportal/index?pageID=0&request_locale=en
  • CAMEO Chemicals, website: http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/search/simple
  • ChemIDplus, website: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
  • ERG - Emergency Response Guidebook by U.S. Department of Transportation, website: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/library/erg
  • Germany GESTIS-database on hazard substance, website: http://www.dguv.de/ifa/gestis/gestis-stoffdatenbank/index-2.jsp
  • ECHA - European Chemicals Agency, website: https://echa.europa.eu/

Disclaimer: The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. We as supplier shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.
MSDS
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Name: 2 2 2-Trifluoroethanol Material Safety Data Sheet
Synonym: TFE; 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl alcohol
CAS: 75-89-8
Section 1 - Chemical Product   MSDS Name:2 2 2-Trifluoroethanol Material Safety Data Sheet
Synonym:TFE; 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl alcohol

Section 2 - COMPOSITION, INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
CAS# Chemical Name content EINECS#
75-89-8 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol >99 200-913-6
Hazard Symbols: XN
Risk Phrases: 10 20/21/22 38 41 62

Section 3 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
  EMERGENCY OVERVIEW
Flammable. Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. Irritating to skin. Risk of serious damage to eyes.
Possible risk of impaired fertility.
Potential Health Effects
Eye:
Causes severe eye irritation. May result in corneal injury.
Skin:
Causes skin irritation. Harmful if absorbed through the skin.
Ingestion:
Harmful if swallowed. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Inhalation:
Harmful if inhaled. Causes respiratory tract irritation.
Chronic:
May cause anemia and other blood cell abnormalities.

Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES
  Eyes: In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical aid immediately.
Skin:
In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water.
Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid. Wash clothing before reuse.
Ingestion:
If swallowed, do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid.
Inhalation:
If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid.
Notes to Physician:
Treat symptomatically and supportively.

Section 5 - FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
  General Information:
As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Flammable liquid and vapor. Vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Vapors can spread along the ground and collect in low or confined areas.
Extinguishing Media:
In case of fire, use water, dry chemical, chemical foam, or alcohol-resistant foam.

Section 6 - ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
  General Information: Use proper personal protective equipment as indicated in Section 8.
Spills/Leaks:
Absorb spill with inert material (e.g. vermiculite, sand or earth), then place in suitable container. Clean up spills immediately, observing precautions in the Protective Equipment section. Remove all sources of ignition. Provide ventilation.

Section 7 - HANDLING and STORAGE
  Handling:
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Do not ingest or inhale. Discard contaminated shoes. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames. Use only with adequate ventilation.
Storage:
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep container closed when not in use. Flammables-area.

Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS, PERSONAL PROTECTION
  Engineering Controls:
Facilities storing or utilizing this material should be equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety shower. Use adequate ventilation to keep airborne concentrations low.
Exposure Limits CAS# 75-89-8: Russia: 10 mg/m3 TWA Personal Protective Equipment Eyes: Wear chemical splash goggles.
Skin:
Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure.
Clothing:
Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators:
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant respirator use.

Section 9 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
 
Physical State: Liquid
Color: clear, colorless
Odor: alcohol-like
pH: 5-7 (10% aq soln)
Vapor Pressure: 70 mm Hg @ 25 deg C
Viscosity: 1.75 cP 25.00 deg
Boiling Point: 73.6 deg C
Freezing/Melting Point: -45 deg C
Autoignition Temperature: 480 deg C ( 896.00 deg F)
Flash Point: 29 deg C ( 84.20 deg F)
Explosion Limits, lower: 5.5%
Explosion Limits, upper: 42%
Decomposition Temperature: 315 deg C
Solubility in water: Soluble.
Specific Gravity/Density: 1.39 g/cm3
Molecular Formula: C2H3F3O
Molecular Weight: 100.04

Section 10 - STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
  Chemical Stability:
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Conditions to Avoid:
Ignition sources, electrical sparks, exposure to flame, heat.
Incompatibilities with Other Materials:
Strong oxidizing agents.
Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen fluoride gas.
Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur.

Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
  RTECS#:
CAS# 75-89-8: KM5250000 LD50/LC50:
CAS# 75-89-8: Draize test, rabbit, eye: 20 mg/24H Moderate; Draize test, rabbit, skin: 750 ug/24H Severe; Inhalation, mouse: LC50 = 2900 mg/m3/2H; Inhalation, mouse: LC50 = 2900 mg/m3/2H; Inhalation, rat: LC50 = 470 ppm/6H; Oral, mouse: LD50 = 366 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 240 mg/kg; Skin, rabbit: LD50 = 390 uL/kg; Skin, rat: LD50 = 1680 mg/kg.
Carcinogenicity:
2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol - Not listed by ACGIH, IARC, or NTP.
Other:
See actual entry in RTECS for complete information.

Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
 

Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
  Dispose of in a manner consistent with federal, state, and local regulations.

Section 14 - TRANSPORT INFORMATION
 
IATA
Shipping Name: ALCOHOLS, N.O.S.*
Hazard Class: 3
UN Number: 1987
Packing Group: III
IMO
Shipping Name: ALCOHOLS, N.O.S.
Hazard Class: 3.3
UN Number: 1987
Packing Group: III
RID/ADR
Shipping Name: ALCOHOLS, FLAMMABLE, N.O.S.
Hazard Class: 3
UN Number: 1987
Packing group: III

Section 15 - REGULATORY INFORMATION
 
European/International Regulations
European Labeling in Accordance with EC Directives
Hazard Symbols: XN
Risk Phrases:
R 10 Flammable.
R 20/21/22 Harmful by inhalation, in contact with
skin and if swallowed.
R 38 Irritating to skin.
R 41 Risk of serious damage to eyes.
R 62 Possible risk of impaired fertility.
Safety Phrases:
S 16 Keep away from sources of ignition - No
smoking.
S 36/37/39 Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves
and eye/face protection.
S 45 In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek
medical advice immediately (show the label where
possible).
WGK (Water Danger/Protection)
CAS# 75-89-8: 1
Canada
CAS# 75-89-8 is listed on Canada's DSL List.
CAS# 75-89-8 is not listed on Canada's Ingredient Disclosure List.
US FEDERAL
TSCA
CAS# 75-89-8 is listed on the TSCA inventory.


SECTION 16 - ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
N/A
Spectrum
NMR Spectrum 1H NMR : Predict
expand collapse
Mass Spectrum Mass spectrum (electron ionization)
expand collapse
Analysis Methods
Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp
expand collapse
Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
OV-101
Retention index
437.
Temperature Control
Method
temperature ramp
Comments
25. m/0.20 mm/0.10 μm, N2/He, 6. K/min; T<sub>start</sub>: 50. C; T<sub>end</sub>: 250. C
Reference
Zenkevich, I.G.Experimentally measured retention indices.2005.
Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program
expand collapse
Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
SPB-1
Retention index
441.
Temperature Control
Method
custom temperature program
Comments
60. m/0.53 mm/5. μm, He; Program: 40C(6min) =&gt; 5C/min =&gt; 80C =&gt; 10C/min =&gt; 200C
Reference
Flanagan, R.J.Streete, P.J.Ramsey, J.D.Volatile Substance AbuseUNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technica
Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program
expand collapse
Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
SPB-1
Retention index
441.
Temperature Control
Method
custom temperature program
Comments
60. m/0.53 mm/5.0 μm, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) <sup> </sup>5 0C/min -&gt; 80 0C <sup> </sup>10 0C/min -&gt; 200 0C
Reference
Strete, P.J.Ruprah, M.Ramsey, J.D.Flanagan, R.J.Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoningAnalyst1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127.
Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program
expand collapse
Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
SPB-1
Retention index
480.
Temperature Control
Method
custom temperature program
Comments
60. m/0.53 mm/5.0 μm, Helium; Program: not specified
Reference
Strete, P.J.Ruprah, M.Ramsey, J.D.Flanagan, R.J.Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoningAnalyst1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127.
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