oleic acid

CAS No. 112-80-1

Formula: C18H34O2
Basic Info

Oleic acid is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in various animal and vegetable fats and oils. It is an odorless, colorless oil, although commercial samples may be yellowish. In chemical terms, oleic acid is classified as a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid, abbreviated with a lipid number of 18:1 cis-9. It has the formula CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH. The term "oleic" means related to, or derived from, oil of olive, the oil that is predominantly composed of oleic acid.

Formula
C18H34O2
Molecular Weight
282.461
Exact Mass
282.256
LogP
6.1085
PSA
37.3
Synonyms

OLEAMID

cis-9-Octadecenoic acid

oleicacidamide-heptaglycolether

9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-

AMD-O

Oleic Acid

octadec-9-enoic acid

Armid O

adogen73

cis-9-octadecenamide

cis-oleamide

Amide O

Slip-eze

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Properties
Appearance & Physical State
colourless to light yellow viscous liquid
Density
0.89
Boiling Point
360ºC
Melting Point
13ºC
Flash Point
189ºC
Refractive Index
1.4585-1.4605
Water Solubility
negligible
Stability
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, aluminium.
Storage Condition
2-8ºC
Vapor Density
1.03 (vs air)
Vapor Pressure
52 mm Hg ( 37 °C)
Safety Info
RTECS
LP8925000
Safety Statements
S26-S37/39
WGK Germany
2
Risk Statements
R36/37/38
HS Code
2916150000
RIDADR
UN 1198 3/PG 3
Hazard Codes
Hazard Declaration
MSDS
SDS 1.0
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SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 10, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 10, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name oleic acid

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names oleicacidamide-heptaglycolether

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Surfactants
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

Company MOLBASE (Shanghai) Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Address Floor 4 & 5, Building 12, No. 1001 North Qinzhou Road,
Xuhui District, Shanghai, China
Telephone +86(21)64956998
Fax +86(21)54365166

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number +86-400-6021-666
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Not classified.

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s) No symbol.
Signal word

No signal word.

Hazard statement(s)

none

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

none

Response

none

Storage

none

Disposal

none

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

3.Composition/information on ingredients

3.1 Substances

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number Concentration
oleic acid oleic acid 112-80-1 none 100%

4.First-aid measures

4.1 Description of necessary first-aid measures

General advice

Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

If inhaled

Fresh air, rest.

In case of skin contact

Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap.

In case of eye contact

First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention.

If swallowed

Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water. Consult a physician.

4.2 Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

Industrial use of compound involves no known hazards. Ingestion causes mild irritation of mouth and stomach. Contact with eyes or skin causes mild irritation. (USCG, 1999)

4.3 Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

/SRP:/ Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR as necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Organic acids and related compounds/

5.Fire-fighting measures

5.1 Extinguishing media

Suitable extinguishing media

Use water spray, dry chemical, foam or carbon dioxide. Water or foam may cause frothing. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from exposures.

5.2 Specific hazards arising from the chemical

This chemical is combustible.

5.3 Special protective actions for fire-fighters

Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

6.Accidental release measures

6.1 Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8.

6.2 Environmental precautions

Collect leaking and spilled liquid in covered containers as far as possible. Wash away remainder with plenty of water.

6.3 Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

Cover with soda ash or sodium bicarbonate. Mix and add water. Neutralize and drain into a drain with sufficient water.

7.Handling and storage

7.1 Precautions for safe handling

Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2.

7.2 Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

Separated from strong bases.Keep containers closed and store in cool and dark places.

8.Exposure controls/personal protection

8.1 Control parameters

Occupational Exposure limit values

no data available

Biological limit values

no data available

8.2 Appropriate engineering controls

Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.

8.3 Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

Eye/face protection

Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Skin protection

Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

Respiratory protection

Wear dust mask when handling large quantities.

Thermal hazards

no data available

9.Physical and chemical properties

Physical state colourless to light yellow viscous liquid
Colour Colorless or nearly colorless liq (above 5-7°C)
Odour PECULIAR LARD-LIKE ODOR
Melting point/ freezing point 22°C(lit.)
Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range 194-195°C/1.2mmHg(lit.)
Flammability Combustible.
Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit no data available
Flash point >113°C
Auto-ignition temperature 362.78°C (USCG, 1999)
Decomposition temperature no data available
pH no data available
Kinematic viscosity 25.6 cP at 30°C
Solubility In water:negligible
Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value) log Kow = 7.64
Vapour pressure 52 mm Hg ( 37 °C)
Density and/or relative density 0.887g/mLat 25°C
Relative vapour density 1.03 (vs air)
Particle characteristics no data available

10.Stability and reactivity

10.1 Reactivity

no data available

10.2 Chemical stability

ON EXPOSURE TO AIR, ESPECIALLY WHEN IMPURE, IT OXIDIZES & ACQUIRES YELLOW TO BROWN COLOR & RANCID ODOR

10.3 Possibility of hazardous reactions

CombustibleOLEIC ACID is a carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acids donate hydrogen ions if a base is present to accept them. They react in this way with all bases, both organic (for example, the amines) and inorganic. Their reactions with bases, called "neutralizations", are accompanied by the evolution of substantial amounts of heat. Neutralization between an acid and a base produces water plus a salt. Carboxylic acids with six or fewer carbon atoms are freely or moderately soluble in water; those with more than six carbons are slightly soluble in water. Soluble carboxylic acid dissociate to an extent in water to yield hydrogen ions. The pH of solutions of carboxylic acids is therefore less than 7.0. Many insoluble carboxylic acids react rapidly with aqueous solutions containing a chemical base and dissolve as the neutralization generates a soluble salt. Carboxylic acids in aqueous solution and liquid or molten carboxylic acids can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. Such reactions occur in principle for solid carboxylic acids as well, but are slow if the solid acid remains dry. Even "insoluble" carboxylic acids may absorb enough water from the air and dissolve sufficiently in it to corrode or dissolve iron, steel, and aluminum parts and containers. Carboxylic acids, like other acids, react with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. The reaction is slower for dry, solid carboxylic acids. Insoluble carboxylic acids react with solutions of cyanides to cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide. Flammable and/or toxic gases and heat are generated by the reaction of carboxylic acids with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides. Carboxylic acids, especially in aqueous solution, also react with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat. Their reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates generates a harmless gas (carbon dioxide) but still heat. Like other organic compounds, carboxylic acids can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. These reactions generate heat. A wide variety of products is possible. Like other acids, carboxylic acids may initiate polymerization reactions; like other acids, they often catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reactions.

10.4 Conditions to avoid

no data available

10.5 Incompatible materials

The improved preparation of 1,4-octadecanolactone involves heating oleic acid (or other C18 acids) with 70% perchloric acid to 115°C. This is considered to be a potentially dangerous method.

10.6 Hazardous decomposition products

When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

11.Toxicological information

Acute toxicity

  • Oral: LD50 Rat oral 74 g/kg
  • Inhalation: no data available
  • Dermal: no data available

Skin corrosion/irritation

no data available

Serious eye damage/irritation

no data available

Respiratory or skin sensitization

no data available

Germ cell mutagenicity

no data available

Carcinogenicity

no data available

Reproductive toxicity

no data available

STOT-single exposure

no data available

STOT-repeated exposure

no data available

Aspiration hazard

no data available

12.Ecological information

12.1 Toxicity

  • Toxicity to fish: LC50; Species: Pimephales promelas (Fathead minnow, juvenile 4-8 wk, length 1.1-3.1 cm); Conditions: freshwater, static, 18-22°C, dissolved oxygen < or =4.0 mg/L; Concentration: 1000000 ug/L for 1 hr
  • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: no data available
  • Toxicity to algae: no data available
  • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

12.2 Persistence and degradability

AEROBIC: A 47 and 52 theoretical %BOD for oleic acid (initial concn of 1,000 ppm) was measured over a period of 5 days in screening tests at 20°C using sewage inoculum(1). A biodegradation half-life of 0.66 days was measured for oleic acid at an initial concn of 100 ppm with an aerobic Warburg respirometer at 25°C using activated sludge inocula(2). In another screening study a first order rate constant was measured to be 0.12/hr for oleic acid (initial concn of 100 ppm) which corresponds to a biodegradation half-life of 0.2 days(3). Oleic acid at initial concns of 1, 10, 1, and 10 ppm exhibited 90, 24, 97, and 28 theoretical %BOD, respectively, over incubation periods of 5, 5, 10, and 10 days, respectively, in an aerobic screening study using sewage inoculum(4). A 68 theoretical %BOD (initial concn of 100 ppm) was measured over a period of 5 days in a screening test at 20°C using sewage inoculum(5). A 39 theoretical %BOD for oleic acid (initial concn not given) was measured over a period of 5 days in a screening test at 20°C using sewage inoculum(6). After a 16 day acclimation time, a 63.5 theoretical %BOD was measured for oleic acid (initial concn not given) over a period of 5 days in a screening test at 20°C using activated sludge inocula(7). A 57.2 theoretical %BOD was measured for oleic acid (initial concn of 500 ppm) over a period of 5 days in an aerobic screening test at 20°C using activated sludge inoculum(8).

12.3 Bioaccumulative potential

An estimated BCF of 10 was calculated in fish for oleic acid(SRC), using a log Kow of 7.64(1) and a regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this BCF suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC).

12.4 Mobility in soil

The Koc of undissociated oleic acid is estimated as 340,000(SRC), using a log Kow of 7.64(1) and a regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this estimated Koc value suggests that oleic acid is expected to be immobile in soil. The pKa of oleic acid is 5.02(4), indicating that this compound will exist almost entirely in anion form in the environment and anions generally do not adsorb more strongly to soils containing organic carbon and clay than their neutral counterparts(5).

12.5 Other adverse effects

no data available

13.Disposal considerations

13.1 Disposal methods

Product

The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

Contaminated packaging

Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

14.Transport information

14.1 UN Number

ADR/RID: Not dangerous goods. IMDG: Not dangerous goods. IATA: Not dangerous goods.

14.2 UN Proper Shipping Name

ADR/RID: unknown
IMDG: unknown
IATA: unknown

14.3 Transport hazard class(es)

ADR/RID: Not dangerous goods. IMDG: Not dangerous goods. IATA: Not dangerous goods.

14.4 Packing group, if applicable

ADR/RID: Not dangerous goods. IMDG: Not dangerous goods. IATA: Not dangerous goods.

14.5 Environmental hazards

ADR/RID: no IMDG: no IATA: no

14.6 Special precautions for user

no data available

14.7 Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code

no data available

15.Regulatory information

15.1 Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number
oleic acid oleic acid 112-80-1 none
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) Listed.
EC Inventory Listed.
United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Listed.
China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015 Not Listed.
New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Listed.
Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS) Listed.
Vietnam National Chemical Inventory Listed.
Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC) Listed.

16.Other information

Information on revision

Creation Date Aug 10, 2017
Revision Date Aug 10, 2017

Abbreviations and acronyms

  • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
  • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
  • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
  • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
  • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
  • TWA: Time Weighted Average
  • STEL: Short term exposure limit
  • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
  • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
  • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%

References

  • IPCS - The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC), website: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.home
  • HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank, website: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/hsdb.htm
  • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer, website: http://www.iarc.fr/
  • eChemPortal - The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances by OECD, website: http://www.echemportal.org/echemportal/index?pageID=0&request_locale=en
  • CAMEO Chemicals, website: http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/search/simple
  • ChemIDplus, website: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
  • ERG - Emergency Response Guidebook by U.S. Department of Transportation, website: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/library/erg
  • Germany GESTIS-database on hazard substance, website: http://www.dguv.de/ifa/gestis/gestis-stoffdatenbank/index-2.jsp
  • ECHA - European Chemicals Agency, website: https://echa.europa.eu/

Disclaimer: The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. We as supplier shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.
MSDS
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Name: Oleic acid Material Safety Data Sheet
Synonym: cis-9-Octadecenoic aci
CAS: 112-80-1
Section 1 - Chemical Product   MSDS Name:Oleic acid Material Safety Data Sheet
Synonym:cis-9-Octadecenoic aci

Section 2 - COMPOSITION, INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
CAS# Chemical Name content EINECS#
112-80-1 Oleic acid >96% 204-007-1
Hazard Symbols: XI
Risk Phrases: 36/37/38

Section 3 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
  EMERGENCY OVERVIEW
Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.Air sensitive.Light sensitive.
Potential Health Effects
Eye:
Causes eye irritation.
Skin:
Causes skin irritation. May be harmful if absorbed through the skin.
Ingestion:
May cause irritation of the digestive tract.
Inhalation:
Causes respiratory tract irritation. May be harmful if inhaled.
Chronic:
Not available.

Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES
  Eyes: Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.
Skin:
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
Ingestion:
Get medical aid. Wash mouth out with water.
Inhalation:
Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid.
Notes to Physician:
Treat symptomatically and supportively.

Section 5 - FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
  General Information:
As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear.
Extinguishing Media:
Use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or chemical foam.

Section 6 - ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
  General Information: Use proper personal protective equipment as indicated in Section 8.
Spills/Leaks:
Absorb spill with inert material (e.g. vermiculite, sand or earth), then place in suitable container.

Section 7 - HANDLING and STORAGE
  Handling:
Avoid breathing dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Storage:
Keep refrigerated. (Store below 4C/39F.) Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a dry area. Store protected from light. Store under an inert atmosphere.

Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS, PERSONAL PROTECTION
  Engineering Controls:
Facilities storing or utilizing this material should be equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety shower. Use adequate ventilation to keep airborne concentrations low.
Exposure Limits CAS# 112-80-1: Personal Protective Equipment Eyes: Not available.
Skin:
Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure.
Clothing:
Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators:
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29 CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Use a NIOSH/MSHA or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator if exposure limits are exceeded or if irritation or other symptoms are experienced.

Section 9 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
 
Physical State: Clear liquid
Color: colourless
Odor: characteristic odor
pH: Not available.
Vapor Pressure: 1mmHg @176 deg C
Viscosity: 39.1 mPa.s @20 deg C
Boiling Point: 360 deg C @760mmHg
Freezing/Melting Point: 13 deg C
Autoignition Temperature: 363 deg C ( 685.40 deg F)
Flash Point: 189 deg C ( 372.20 deg F)
Explosion Limits, lower: Not available.
Explosion Limits, upper: Not available.
Decomposition Temperature: >80 deg C
Solubility in water: Negligible.
Specific Gravity/Density: 0.890
Molecular Formula: C18H34O2
Molecular Weight: 282.46

Section 10 - STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
  Chemical Stability:
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Conditions to Avoid:
High temperatures, incompatible materials, light, exposure to air.
Incompatibilities with Other Materials:
Strong oxidizing agents, oxidizing agents.
Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.
Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur.

Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
  RTECS#:
CAS# 112-80-1: RG2275000 LD50/LC50:
CAS# 112-80-1: Draize test, rabbit, eye: 100 mg Mild; Oral, mouse: LD50 = 28 gm/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 25 gm/kg.
Carcinogenicity:
Oleic acid - Not listed by ACGIH, IARC, or NTP.
Other:
See actual entry in RTECS for complete information.

Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
 

Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
  Dispose of in a manner consistent with federal, state, and local regulations.

Section 14 - TRANSPORT INFORMATION
 
IATA
Shipping Name: Not regulated.
Hazard Class:
UN Number:
Packing Group:
IMO
Shipping Name: Not regulated.
Hazard Class:
UN Number:
Packing Group:
RID/ADR
Shipping Name: Not regulated.
Hazard Class:
UN Number:
Packing group:

Section 15 - REGULATORY INFORMATION
 
European/International Regulations
European Labeling in Accordance with EC Directives
Hazard Symbols: XI
Risk Phrases:
R 36/37/38 Irritating to eyes, respiratory system
and skin.
Safety Phrases:
S 26 In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately
with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 Wear suitable gloves and eye/face
protection.
WGK (Water Danger/Protection)
CAS# 112-80-1: 1
Canada
CAS# 112-80-1 is listed on Canada's DSL List.
CAS# 112-80-1 is listed on Canada's Ingredient Disclosure List.
US FEDERAL
TSCA
CAS# 112-80-1 is listed on the TSCA inventory.


SECTION 16 - ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
N/A
Spectrum
NMR Spectrum 1H NMR : 90 MHz in CDCl3
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IR Spectrum IR : liquid film
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Mass Spectrum Mass spectrum (electron ionization)
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Toxicity
SKIN/EYE IRRITATION DATA
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Type of Test
Standard Draize test
Exposure Route
Administration onto the skin
Species Observed
Human
Dose/Duration
15 mg/3D (Intermittent)
Toxic Effects
--
Reference
Cutaneous Toxicity, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 1976, Drill, V.A., and P. Lazar, eds., New York, Academic Press, Inc. 1977 Volume(issue)/page/year: -,127,1977
TUMORIGENIC DATA
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Type of Test
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
Exposure Route
Subcutaneous
Species Observed
Rodent - rabbit
Dose/Duration
390 mg/kg/17W-I
Toxic Effects
Tumorigenic--equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria<br>Tumorigenic--tumors at site of application
Reference
Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.1- 1849- Volume(issue)/page/year: 137,760,1943
MUTATION DATA
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Type of Test
Cytogenetic analysis
Exposure Route
Species Observed
Dose/Duration
100 mg/L
Toxic Effects
--
Reference
Nature. (Nature Subscription Dept., POB 1018, Manasguan, NJ 08736) V.1- 1869- Volume(issue)/page/year: 294,263,1981

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