acetamide

CAS No. 60-35-5

Formula: C2H5NO
Basic Info

Acetamide (IUPAC: ethanamide) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CONH2. It is the simplest amide derived from acetic acid. It finds some use as a plasticizer and as an industrial solvent. The related compound N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) is more widely used, but it is not prepared from acetamide.

Formula
C2H5NO
Molecular Weight
59.0672
Exact Mass
59.0371
LogP
0.1919
PSA
43.09
Synonyms

Acetic-d3 acid-d

Tetradeuteroacetic acid

Acetic acid-d4

Acetamide

acetic amide

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Properties
Appearance & Physical State
white crystalline solid
Density
1.159
Boiling Point
221ºC
Melting Point
79-81ºC
Flash Point
90.1ºC
Refractive Index
1.392
Water Solubility
2000 g/L (20 ºC)
Stability
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong oxidizing agents, strong bases. Deliquescent. Triboluminescent.
Storage Condition
Store at RT
Vapor Pressure
1 mm Hg ( 65 °C)
Safety Info
RTECS
AB4025000
Safety Statements
S36/37
WGK Germany
1
Risk Statements
R40
HS Code
2924199090
RIDADR
UN 3077
Caution Statement
P281
Hazard Codes
Hazard Declaration
Caution Statement
MSDS
SDS 1.0
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SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name acetamide

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names Acetic-d3 acid-d

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Acetamide is used as a solvent, plasticizer, and a wetting and penetrating agent.
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

Company MOLBASE (Shanghai) Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Address Floor 4 & 5, Building 12, No. 1001 North Qinzhou Road,
Xuhui District, Shanghai, China
Telephone +86(21)64956998
Fax +86(21)54365166

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number +86-400-6021-666
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Carcinogenicity, Category 2

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Warning

Hazard statement(s)

H351 Suspected of causing cancer

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P201 Obtain special instructions before use.

P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

Response

P308+P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/ attention.

Storage

P405 Store locked up.

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

3.Composition/information on ingredients

3.1 Substances

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number Concentration
acetamide acetamide 60-35-5 none 100%

4.First-aid measures

4.1 Description of necessary first-aid measures

General advice

Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

If inhaled

Fresh air, rest.

In case of skin contact

Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower.

In case of eye contact

First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention.

If swallowed

Rinse mouth. Refer for medical attention .

4.2 Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

SYMPTOMS: Exposure to this compound may cause irritation to the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS: This chemical may cause skin and eye irritation and corneal damage.

4.3 Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 min, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. ... If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure and transfer promptly to a medical facility.

5.Fire-fighting measures

5.1 Extinguishing media

Suitable extinguishing media

Suitable extinguishing media: Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.

5.2 Specific hazards arising from the chemical

The flash point of this chemical has not been determined, but it is probably combustible.

5.3 Special protective actions for fire-fighters

Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

6.Accidental release measures

6.1 Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8.

6.2 Environmental precautions

Personal protection: P2 filter respirator for harmful particles. Sweep spilled substance into covered containers. If appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations.

6.3 Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES: Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapors, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. Environmental precautions: Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. Do not let product enter drains. Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up: Pick up and arrange disposal without creating dust. Sweep up and shovel. Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal.

7.Handling and storage

7.1 Precautions for safe handling

Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2.

7.2 Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

Dry. Well closed.Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place. Moisture sensitive.

8.Exposure controls/personal protection

8.1 Control parameters

Occupational Exposure limit values

no data available

Biological limit values

no data available

8.2 Appropriate engineering controls

Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.

8.3 Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

Eye/face protection

Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Skin protection

Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

Respiratory protection

Wear dust mask when handling large quantities.

Thermal hazards

no data available

9.Physical and chemical properties

Physical state white crystalline solid
Colour Deliquescent hexagonal crystals
Odour Odorless when pure, but frequently has a mousy odor
Melting point/ freezing point 339°C(lit.)
Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range 221°C(lit.)
Flammability Combustible. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.
Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit no data available
Flash point 43°C(lit.)
Auto-ignition temperature no data available
Decomposition temperature no data available
pH no data available
Kinematic viscosity 2.182 centipose (91.1°C); 1.461 centipose (111.8°C); 1.056 centipose (131.7°C)
Solubility In water:2000 g/L (20 ºC)
Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value) no data available
Vapour pressure 1 mm Hg ( 65 °C)
Density and/or relative density 1.159
Relative vapour density no data available
Particle characteristics no data available

10.Stability and reactivity

10.1 Reactivity

no data available

10.2 Chemical stability

Stable under recommended storage conditions.

10.3 Possibility of hazardous reactions

This substance is a combustible solid.ACETAMIDE may react with azo and diazo compounds to generate toxic gases. May form flammable gases with strong reducing agents. Reacts as a weak bases (weaker than water). Mixing with dehydrating agents such as P2O5 or SOCl2 generates acetonitrile Burns to give toxic mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx).

10.4 Conditions to avoid

no data available

10.5 Incompatible materials

Incompatible materials: Strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases, strong reducing agents.

10.6 Hazardous decomposition products

Hazardous decomposition products formed under fire conditions - Carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides (NOx).

11.Toxicological information

Acute toxicity

  • Oral: LD50 Rat oral 7000 mg/kg
  • Inhalation: no data available
  • Dermal: no data available

Skin corrosion/irritation

no data available

Serious eye damage/irritation

no data available

Respiratory or skin sensitization

no data available

Germ cell mutagenicity

no data available

Carcinogenicity

Cancer classification: Group C - possible human carcinogen.

Reproductive toxicity

No information is available on the reproductive or developmental effects of acetamide in humans. Animal studies have not reported any significant developmental effects from exposure to acetamide.

STOT-single exposure

no data available

STOT-repeated exposure

no data available

Aspiration hazard

no data available

12.Ecological information

12.1 Toxicity

  • Toxicity to fish: no data available
  • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: no data available
  • Toxicity to algae: no data available
  • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

12.2 Persistence and degradability

AEROBIC: Using OECD Guideline 301D (Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test) and a domestic sewage inoculum, acetamide at an initial concentration of 6.08 mg/L reached 69% of theoretical degradation in a 10-day window which classified the compound as readily biodegradable(1). Acetamide, present at 100 mg/L, reached 69% of its theoretical BOD in 3 weeks using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/L in the Japanese MITI test which classified the compound as readily biodegradable(2). In screening tests in which acetamide was incubated with activated sludge from 3 sewage treatment plants, 29.6-45.7% of theoretical BOD was utilized in 24 hr(3). A study reported acetamide to be easily biodegraded in a screening test using a sewage inoculum with 44% of theoretical BOD utilized in 3 days including a 10 hr lag period(4).

12.3 Bioaccumulative potential

An estimated BCF of 3 was calculated in fish for acetamide(SRC), using a log Kow of -1.26(1) and a regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this BCF suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC).

12.4 Mobility in soil

An experimental Koc of 5 has been reported for acetamide(1). According to a classification scheme(2), this Koc value suggests that acetamide is expected to have very high mobility in soil.

12.5 Other adverse effects

no data available

13.Disposal considerations

13.1 Disposal methods

Product

The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

Contaminated packaging

Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

14.Transport information

14.1 UN Number

ADR/RID: UN3077 IMDG: UN3077 IATA: UN3077

14.2 UN Proper Shipping Name

ADR/RID: ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, SOLID, N.O.S.
IMDG: ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, SOLID, N.O.S.
IATA: ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, SOLID, N.O.S.

14.3 Transport hazard class(es)

ADR/RID: 9 IMDG: 9 IATA: 9

14.4 Packing group, if applicable

ADR/RID: III IMDG: III IATA: III

14.5 Environmental hazards

ADR/RID: no IMDG: no IATA: no

14.6 Special precautions for user

no data available

14.7 Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code

no data available

15.Regulatory information

15.1 Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number
acetamide acetamide 60-35-5 none
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) Listed.
EC Inventory Listed.
United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Listed.
China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015 Not Listed.
New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Listed.
Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS) Listed.
Vietnam National Chemical Inventory Listed.
Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC) Listed.

16.Other information

Information on revision

Creation Date Aug 12, 2017
Revision Date Aug 12, 2017

Abbreviations and acronyms

  • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
  • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
  • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
  • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
  • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
  • TWA: Time Weighted Average
  • STEL: Short term exposure limit
  • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
  • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
  • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%

References

  • IPCS - The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC), website: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.home
  • HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank, website: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/hsdb.htm
  • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer, website: http://www.iarc.fr/
  • eChemPortal - The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances by OECD, website: http://www.echemportal.org/echemportal/index?pageID=0&request_locale=en
  • CAMEO Chemicals, website: http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/search/simple
  • ChemIDplus, website: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
  • ERG - Emergency Response Guidebook by U.S. Department of Transportation, website: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/library/erg
  • Germany GESTIS-database on hazard substance, website: http://www.dguv.de/ifa/gestis/gestis-stoffdatenbank/index-2.jsp
  • ECHA - European Chemicals Agency, website: https://echa.europa.eu/

Disclaimer: The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. We as supplier shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.
MSDS
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Name: Acetamide Material Safety Data Sheet
Synonym: Acetic Acid Amide; Ethanamide; Methanecarboxamide
CAS: 60-35-5
Section 1 - Chemical Product   MSDS Name:Acetamide Material Safety Data Sheet
Synonym:Acetic Acid Amide; Ethanamide; Methanecarboxamide

Section 2 - COMPOSITION, INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
CAS# Chemical Name content EINECS#
60-35-5 Acetamide 100 200-473-5
Hazard Symbols: XN
Risk Phrases: 40

Section 3 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
  EMERGENCY OVERVIEW
Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air).
Potential Health Effects
Eye:
May cause eye irritation.
Skin:
Causes mild skin irritation.
Ingestion:
Ingestion of large amounts may cause gastrointestinal irritation.
May cause liver damage.
Inhalation:
May cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause liver damage.
Chronic:
Possible cancer hazard based on tests with laboratory animals. May cause cancer according to animal studies. Chronic exposure may cause liver damage.

Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES
  Eyes: Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.
Skin:
Flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Wash clothing before reuse.
Ingestion:
Do not induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid.
Inhalation:
Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid if cough or other symptoms appear. Do NOT use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Notes to Physician:

Section 5 - FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
  General Information:
As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Dusts may be combustible when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizing agents. Dust can be an explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame.
Extinguishing Media:
For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Water or foam may cause frothing. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers.

Section 6 - ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
  General Information: Use proper personal protective equipment as indicated in Section 8.
Spills/Leaks:
Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Provide ventilation.
Clean up residual material by washing area with a 2-5% solution of soda ash.

Section 7 - HANDLING and STORAGE
  Handling:
Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Use with adequate ventilation.
Storage:
Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.

Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS, PERSONAL PROTECTION
  Engineering Controls:
Facilities storing or utilizing this material should be equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety shower. Use process enclosure, local exhaust ventilation, or other engineering controls to control airborne levels.
Exposure Limits CAS# 60-35-5: Netherlands: 10 ppm MAC; 25 mg/m3 MAC Personal Protective Equipment Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166.
Skin:
Wear appropriate gloves to prevent skin exposure.
Clothing:
Wear appropriate protective clothing to minimize contact with skin.
Respirators:
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29 CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Use a NIOSH/MSHA or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator if exposure limits are exceeded or if irritation or other symptoms are experienced.

Section 9 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
 
Physical State: Solid
Color: white
Odor: mousy like odor
pH: Not available.
Vapor Pressure: Negligible.
Viscosity: Not available.
Boiling Point: 221 deg C
Freezing/Melting Point: 80 deg C
Autoignition Temperature: Not applicable.
Flash Point: Not applicable.
Explosion Limits, lower: Not available.
Explosion Limits, upper: Not available.
Decomposition Temperature: Not available.
Solubility in water: 200% in water.
Specific Gravity/Density: 1.16
Molecular Formula: C2H5NO
Molecular Weight: 59.07

Section 10 - STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
  Chemical Stability:
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.
Conditions to Avoid:
Dust generation, moisture, excess heat.
Incompatibilities with Other Materials:
Strong oxidizers, metals, halogenated materials.
Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.
Hazardous Polymerization: Has not been reported.

Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
  RTECS#:
CAS# 60-35-5: AB4025000 LD50/LC50:
CAS# 60-35-5: Oral, mouse: LD50 = 12900 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 7 gm/kg.
Carcinogenicity:
Acetamide - California: carcinogen, initial date 1/1/90 IARC: Group 2B carcinogen Other:
See actual entry in RTECS for complete information.

Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
  Other For more information, see "HANDBOOK OF ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND EXPOSURE DATA."

Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
  Products which are considered hazardous for supply are classified as Special Waste and the disposal of such chemicals is covered by regulations which may vary according to location. Contact a specialist disposal company or the local waste regulator for advice. Empty containers must be decontaminated before returning for recycling.

Section 14 - TRANSPORT INFORMATION
 
IATA
Shipping Name: Not regulated.
Hazard Class:
UN Number:
Packing Group:
IMO
Shipping Name: Not regulated.
Hazard Class:
UN Number:
Packing Group:
RID/ADR
Shipping Name: Not regulated.
Hazard Class:
UN Number:
Packing group:
USA RQ: CAS# 60-35-5: 100 lb final RQ; 45.4 kg final RQ

Section 15 - REGULATORY INFORMATION
 
European/International Regulations
European Labeling in Accordance with EC Directives
Hazard Symbols: XN
Risk Phrases:
R 40 Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
Safety Phrases:
S 36/37 Wear suitable protective clothing and
gloves.
WGK (Water Danger/Protection)
CAS# 60-35-5: 1
Canada
CAS# 60-35-5 is listed on Canada's DSL List.
CAS# 60-35-5 is not listed on Canada's Ingredient Disclosure List.
US FEDERAL
TSCA
CAS# 60-35-5 is listed on the TSCA inventory.


SECTION 16 - ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
N/A
Spectrum
NMR Spectrum 1H NMR : 90 MHz in D2O
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IR Spectrum IR : KBr disc
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Mass Spectrum Mass
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Raman Spectrum Raman : 4880 A,200 M,powder
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ESR Spectrum ESR : OXIDATION WITH TICL3-H2O2 SYSTEM
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Analysis Methods
Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp
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Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
SPB-Sulfur
Retention index
719.8
Temperature Control
Method
temperature ramp
Comments
30. m/0.32 mm/4. μm, 40. C @ 12.5 min, 4. K/min; T<sub>end</sub>: 200. C
Reference
de Lacy Costello, B.P.J.Evans, P.Ewen, R.J.Gunson, H.E.Jones, P.R.H.Ratcliffe, N.M.Spencer-Phillips, P.T.N.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of volatile organic compounds from potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans or Fusarium coeruleumPlant Pathol.2001, 50, 4, 489-496.
Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program
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Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
FFAP
Retention index
1788.
Temperature Control
Method
custom temperature program
Comments
50. m/0.25 mm/0.25 μm, He; Program: 20C (5min) =&gt; 2C/min =&gt; 70C =&gt; 4C/min =&gt; 210C
Reference
Yasuhara, A.Identification of Volatile Compounds in Poultry Manure by Gas Chromatography-Mass SpectrometryJ. Chromatogr.1987, 387, 371-378.
Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp
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Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
DB-1
Retention index
764.
Temperature Control
Method
temperature ramp
Comments
60. m/0.32 mm/1. μm, He, 3. K/min; T<sub>start</sub>: 40. C; T<sub>end</sub>: 260. C
Reference
Chen, J.Wang, M.Ho, C.-T.Volatile compounds generated from thermal degradation of N-acetylglucosamineJ. Agric. Food Chem.1998, 46, 8, 3207-3209.
Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp
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Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
RTX-Wax
Retention index
1738.
Temperature Control
Method
temperature ramp
Comments
30. m/0.25 mm/0.5 μm, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 10. K/min, 220. C @ 10. min
Reference
Prososki, R.A.Etzel, M.R.Rankin, S.A.Solvent type affects the number, distribution, and relative quantities of volatile compounds found in sweet whey powderJ. Dairy Sci.2007, 90, 2, 523-531.
Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp
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Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
DB-Wax
Retention index
1764.
Temperature Control
Method
temperature ramp
Comments
He, 70. C @ 8. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; T<sub>end</sub>: 160. C
Reference
Wong, J.M.Bernhard, R.A.Effect of nitrogen source on pyrazine formationJ. Agric. Food Chem.1988, 36, 1, 123-129.
Toxicity
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
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Type of Test
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
Exposure Route
Oral
Species Observed
Rodent - rat
Dose/Duration
7 gm/kg
Toxic Effects
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value--
Reference
Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. (Biochemical Soc. Book Depot, POB 32, Commerce Way, Colchester, Essex CO2 8HP, UK) V.1- 1960- Volume(issue)/page/year: 4,219,1962
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
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Type of Test
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
Exposure Route
Intraperitoneal
Species Observed
Rodent - rat
Dose/Duration
10300 mg/kg
Toxic Effects
Behavioral--altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)<br>Behavioral--muscle weakness<br>Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration--dyspnea
Reference
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. (Editio Cantor Verlag, Postfach 1255, W-7960 Aulendorf, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1951- Volume(issue)/page/year: 20,1242,1970
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
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Type of Test
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
Exposure Route
Subcutaneous
Species Observed
Rodent - rat
Dose/Duration
10 gm/kg
Toxic Effects
Peripheral Nerve and Sensation--flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)<br>Autonomic Nervous System--smooth muscle relaxant (mechanism undefined, spasmolytic)<br>Cardiac--change in rate
Reference
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. (Oyo Yakuri Kenkyukai, CPO Box 180, Sendai 980-91, Japan) V.1- 1967- Volume(issue)/page/year: 4,451,1970

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