Diethyl oxalate

CAS No. 95-92-1

Formula: C6H10O4
Basic Info

Diethyl oxalate is a chemical used to pre-treat wood chips in order to refine and prepare them for further processing (such as obtaining wood pulp). Diethyl oxalate is also used as a starting material to synthesize Ethylene glycol by means of catalytic hydrogenation.

Formula
C6H10O4
Molecular Weight
146.141
Exact Mass
146.058
LogP
0.1126
PSA
52.6
Synonyms

Ethanedioic acid, diethyl ester

oxalic diethyl ester

OXALIC ACID DIETHYL ESTER

Ethyl oxalate

diethyl ester of oxalic acid

Ethanedioic acid,diethyl ester

diethyl ethane-1,2-dioate

Oxalic ether

Diethyloxalate

DI ETHYL OXALATE

diethyl dicarboxylate

DIETHYL OXALATE (2.5 LT PVC)

diethyl ethanedioate

DIETHYL OXALATE FOR PHARMA SYNTHESIS

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Properties
Appearance & Physical State
liquid
Density
1.076
Boiling Point
185ºC
Melting Point
-41ºC
Flash Point
76ºC
Refractive Index
1.4085-1.4105
Water Solubility
MAY DECOMPOSE
Stability
Stable, but moisture sensitive. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
Vapor Density
5.03 (vs air)
Vapor Pressure
1 mm Hg ( 47 °C)
Safety Info
RTECS
RO2800000
Safety Statements
S23
WGK Germany
1
Risk Statements
R22; R36
HS Code
2917119000
RIDADR
UN 2525
Hazard Class
6.1
Packing Group
III
Hazard Codes
MSDS
SDS 1.0
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SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 17, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 17, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name Diethyl oxalate

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names Ethanedioic acid, diethyl ester

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Food additives -> Flavoring Agents
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

Company MOLBASE (Shanghai) Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Address Floor 4 & 5, Building 12, No. 1001 North Qinzhou Road,
Xuhui District, Shanghai, China
Telephone +86(21)64956998
Fax +86(21)54365166

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number +86-400-6021-666
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Acute toxicity - Oral, Category 4

Eye irritation, Category 2

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Warning

Hazard statement(s)

H302 Harmful if swallowed

H319 Causes serious eye irritation

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

Response

P301+P312 IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…if you feel unwell.

P330 Rinse mouth.

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P337+P313 If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.

Storage

none

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

3.Composition/information on ingredients

3.1 Substances

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number Concentration
Diethyl oxalate Diethyl oxalate 95-92-1 none 100%

4.First-aid measures

4.1 Description of necessary first-aid measures

General advice

Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

If inhaled

If breathed in, move person into fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. Consult a physician.

In case of skin contact

Wash off with soap and plenty of water. Consult a physician.

In case of eye contact

Rinse thoroughly with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and consult a physician.

If swallowed

Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water. Consult a physician.

4.2 Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

Excerpt from ERG Guide 156 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Combustible / Water-Sensitive)]: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Reaction with water or moist air will release toxic, corrosive or flammable gases. Reaction with water may generate much heat that will increase the concentration of fumes in the air. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. (ERG, 2016)

4.3 Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

no data available

5.Fire-fighting measures

5.1 Extinguishing media

Suitable extinguishing media

FOAM, CARBON DIOXIDE, DRY CHEMICAL

5.2 Specific hazards arising from the chemical

Excerpt from ERG Guide 156 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Combustible / Water-Sensitive)]: Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. Substance will react with water (some violently) releasing flammable, toxic or corrosive gases and runoff. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors and sewers explosion hazards. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water. (ERG, 2016)

5.3 Special protective actions for fire-fighters

Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

6.Accidental release measures

6.1 Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8.

6.2 Environmental precautions

Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. Do not let product enter drains. Discharge into the environment must be avoided.

6.3 Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

Pick up and arrange disposal. Sweep up and shovel. Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal.

7.Handling and storage

7.1 Precautions for safe handling

Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2.

7.2 Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

STORAGE TANKS CONTAINING FLAMMABLE ESTERS SHOULD BE SITUATED IN MOUNDED COMPOUND CONSTRUCTED TO RETAIN MAX QUANTITY OF LIQ THAT COULD ESCAPE FROM TANKS. /ESTERS/

8.Exposure controls/personal protection

8.1 Control parameters

Occupational Exposure limit values

no data available

Biological limit values

no data available

8.2 Appropriate engineering controls

Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.

8.3 Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

Eye/face protection

Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Skin protection

Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

Respiratory protection

Wear dust mask when handling large quantities.

Thermal hazards

no data available

9.Physical and chemical properties

Physical state liquid
Colour COLORLESS, OILY LIQUID
Odour AROMATIC ODOR
Melting point/ freezing point -41ºC
Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range 185ºC
Flammability no data available
Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit no data available
Flash point 76ºC
Auto-ignition temperature no data available
Decomposition temperature no data available
pH no data available
Kinematic viscosity no data available
Solubility In water:MAY DECOMPOSE
Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value) no data available
Vapour pressure 1 mm Hg ( 47 °C)
Density and/or relative density 1.076
Relative vapour density 5.03 (vs air)
Particle characteristics no data available

10.Stability and reactivity

10.1 Reactivity

no data available

10.2 Chemical stability

UNSTABLE

10.3 Possibility of hazardous reactions

MODERATE WHEN EXPOSED TO HEAT OR FLAMEETHYL OXALATE is an ester. Esters react with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction of esters with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing esters with alkali metals and hydrides

10.4 Conditions to avoid

no data available

10.5 Incompatible materials

no data available

10.6 Hazardous decomposition products

ON COMBUSTION, WILL GIVE OFF TOXIC FUMES

11.Toxicological information

Acute toxicity

  • Oral: no data available
  • Inhalation: no data available
  • Dermal: no data available

Skin corrosion/irritation

no data available

Serious eye damage/irritation

no data available

Respiratory or skin sensitization

no data available

Germ cell mutagenicity

no data available

Carcinogenicity

no data available

Reproductive toxicity

no data available

STOT-single exposure

no data available

STOT-repeated exposure

no data available

Aspiration hazard

no data available

12.Ecological information

12.1 Toxicity

  • Toxicity to fish: no data available
  • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: no data available
  • Toxicity to algae: no data available
  • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

12.2 Persistence and degradability

no data available

12.3 Bioaccumulative potential

no data available

12.4 Mobility in soil

no data available

12.5 Other adverse effects

no data available

13.Disposal considerations

13.1 Disposal methods

Product

The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

Contaminated packaging

Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

14.Transport information

14.1 UN Number

ADR/RID: UN2525 IMDG: UN2525 IATA: UN2525

14.2 UN Proper Shipping Name

ADR/RID: ETHYL OXALATE
IMDG: ETHYL OXALATE
IATA: ETHYL OXALATE

14.3 Transport hazard class(es)

ADR/RID: 6.1 IMDG: 6.1 IATA: 6.1

14.4 Packing group, if applicable

ADR/RID: III IMDG: III IATA: III

14.5 Environmental hazards

ADR/RID: no IMDG: no IATA: no

14.6 Special precautions for user

no data available

14.7 Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code

no data available

15.Regulatory information

15.1 Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number
Diethyl oxalate Diethyl oxalate 95-92-1 none
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) Listed.
EC Inventory Listed.
United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Listed.
China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015 Listed.
New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Listed.
Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS) Listed.
Vietnam National Chemical Inventory Not Listed.
Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC) Listed.

16.Other information

Information on revision

Creation Date Aug 17, 2017
Revision Date Aug 17, 2017

Abbreviations and acronyms

  • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
  • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
  • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
  • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
  • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
  • TWA: Time Weighted Average
  • STEL: Short term exposure limit
  • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
  • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
  • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%

References

  • IPCS - The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC), website: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.home
  • HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank, website: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/hsdb.htm
  • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer, website: http://www.iarc.fr/
  • eChemPortal - The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances by OECD, website: http://www.echemportal.org/echemportal/index?pageID=0&request_locale=en
  • CAMEO Chemicals, website: http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/search/simple
  • ChemIDplus, website: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
  • ERG - Emergency Response Guidebook by U.S. Department of Transportation, website: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/library/erg
  • Germany GESTIS-database on hazard substance, website: http://www.dguv.de/ifa/gestis/gestis-stoffdatenbank/index-2.jsp
  • ECHA - European Chemicals Agency, website: https://echa.europa.eu/

Disclaimer: The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. We as supplier shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.
MSDS
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Name: Diethyl oxalate Material Safety Data Sheet
Synonym: Diethyl ethanedioate; Ethyl oxalate; Oxalic acid, diethyl ester
CAS: 95-92-1
Section 1 - Chemical Product   MSDS Name:Diethyl oxalate Material Safety Data Sheet
Synonym:Diethyl ethanedioate; Ethyl oxalate; Oxalic acid, diethyl ester

Section 2 - COMPOSITION, INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
CAS# Chemical Name content EINECS#
95-92-1 Ethyl oxalate 100 202-464-1
Hazard Symbols: XI
Risk Phrases: 36

Section 3 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
  EMERGENCY OVERVIEW
Irritating to eyes.Moisture sensitive.
Potential Health Effects
Eye:
Contact with eyes may cause severe irritation, and possible eye burns.
Skin:
May cause severe skin irritation. Prolonged and/or repeated contact may cause defatting of the skin and dermatitis.
Ingestion:
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause burning sensation in lips, mouth, and throat and feeling of constriction or pain in throat or chest. Tingling or pain in hands may also occur.
Inhalation:
May cause irritation of the respiratory tract with burning pain in the nose and throat, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and pulmonary edema.
Chronic:
Chronic inhalation may cause effects similar to those of acute inhalation. Chronic ingestion may cause effects similar to those of acute ingestion.

Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES
  Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.
Skin:
Get medical aid. Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
Wash clothing before reuse.
Ingestion:
Do not induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
Inhalation:
Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid. Do NOT use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Notes to Physician:

Section 5 - FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
  General Information:
As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire. Combustible liquid. Vapors may be heavier than air. They can spread along the ground and collect in low or confined areas.
Extinguishing Media:
In case of fire, use water, dry chemical, chemical foam, or alcohol-resistant foam. Do NOT get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.

Section 6 - ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
  General Information: Use proper personal protective equipment as indicated in Section 8.
Spills/Leaks:
Absorb spill with inert material (e.g. vermiculite, sand or earth), then place in suitable container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, observing precautions in the Protective Equipment section. Scoop up with a nonsparking tool, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Remove all sources of ignition. Do not get water inside containers.

Section 7 - HANDLING and STORAGE
  Handling:
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well-ventilated area.
Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. Do not get on skin or in eyes. Do not ingest or inhale. Do not allow contact with water. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames. Keep from contact with moist air and steam.
Storage:
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Store protected from moisture.

Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS, PERSONAL PROTECTION
  Engineering Controls:
Use adequate ventilation to keep airborne concentrations low.
Exposure Limits CAS# 95-92-1: Personal Protective Equipment Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166.
Skin:
Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure.
Clothing:
Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators:
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29 CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Use a NIOSH/MSHA or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator if exposure limits are exceeded or if irritation or other symptoms are experienced.

Section 9 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
 
Physical State: Liquid
Color: clear, colorless
Odor: Aromatic liquid.
pH: Not available.
Vapor Pressure: 1 mm Hg @ 47 C
Viscosity: Not available.
Boiling Point: 186 deg C
Freezing/Melting Point: -41 deg C
Autoignition Temperature: Not applicable.
Flash Point: 76 deg C ( 168.80 deg F)
Explosion Limits, lower: 0.08%
Explosion Limits, upper: Not available.
Decomposition Temperature: Not available.
Solubility in water: Slightly soluble in water. (decomposes)
Specific Gravity/Density: 1.08
Molecular Formula: C6H10O4
Molecular Weight: 146.0676

Section 10 - STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
  Chemical Stability:
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Conditions to Avoid:
High temperatures, mechanical shock, incompatible materials, ignition sources, moisture, excess heat, exposure to moist air or water.
Incompatibilities with Other Materials:
Oxidizing agents Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.
Hazardous Polymerization: Has not been reported.

Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
  RTECS#:
CAS# 95-92-1: RO2800000 LD50/LC50:
CAS# 95-92-1: Oral, mouse: LD50 = 2 gm/kg.
Not available.
Carcinogenicity:
Ethyl oxalate - Not listed by ACGIH, IARC, or NTP.
Other:
See actual entry in RTECS for complete information.

Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
 

Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
  Products which are considered hazardous for supply are classified as Special Waste and the disposal of such chemicals is covered by regulations which may vary according to location. Contact a specialist disposal company or the local waste regulator for advice. Empty containers must be decontaminated before returning for recycling.

Section 14 - TRANSPORT INFORMATION
 
IATA
Shipping Name: ETHYL OXALATE
Hazard Class: 6.1
UN Number: 2525
Packing Group: III
IMO
Shipping Name: ETHYL OXALATE
Hazard Class: 6.1
UN Number: 2525
Packing Group: III
RID/ADR
Shipping Name: ETHYL OXALATE
Hazard Class: 6.1
UN Number: 2525
Packing group: III

Section 15 - REGULATORY INFORMATION
 
European/International Regulations
European Labeling in Accordance with EC Directives
Hazard Symbols: XI
Risk Phrases:
R 36 Irritating to eyes.
Safety Phrases:
WGK (Water Danger/Protection)
CAS# 95-92-1: 1
Canada
CAS# 95-92-1 is listed on Canada's DSL List.
CAS# 95-92-1 is listed on Canada's Ingredient Disclosure List.
US FEDERAL
TSCA
CAS# 95-92-1 is listed on the TSCA inventory.


SECTION 16 - ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
N/A
Spectrum
NMR Spectrum 1H NMR : parameter in CDCl3
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IR Spectrum IR : liquid film
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Mass Spectrum Mass spectrum (electron ionization)
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Raman Spectrum Raman : 4880 A,200 M,liquid
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Analysis Methods
Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal
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Column Shape
Packed
Active Phase(℃)
DC-200
Retention index
940.
Temperature Control
120.
Method
isothermal
Comments
Celite; Column length: 4. m
Reference
Reymond, D.Mueggler-Chavan, F.Viani, R.Vuataz, L.Egli, R.H.Gas chromatographic analysis of steam volatile aroma constituents: application to coffee, tea and cocoa aromasJ. Gas Chromatogr.1966, 4, 1, 28-31.
Kovats' RI, polar column, temperature ramp
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Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
Supelcowax-10
Retention index
1496.
Temperature Control
Method
temperature ramp
Comments
He, 35. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
Reference
Wong, K.C.Teng, Y.E.Volatile Components of Mimusops elengi L. FlowersJ. Essent. Oil Res.1994, 6, 5, 453-458.
Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp
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Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
RTX-5
Retention index
940.
Temperature Control
Method
temperature ramp
Comments
30. m/0.25 mm/0.25 μm, N2, 40. C @ 2. min, 5. K/min, 300. C @ 10. min
Reference
Ádámová, M.Orinák, A.Halás, L.Retention indices as identification tool in pyrolysis-capillary gas chromatographyJ. Chromatogr. A2005, 1087, 1-2, 131-141.
Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp
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Column Shape
Packed
Active Phase(℃)
SE-30
Retention index
948.
Temperature Control
Method
temperature ramp
Comments
Celite; T<sub>start</sub>: 75. C; T<sub>end</sub>: 228. C
Reference
van den Dool, H.Kratz, P. Dec.A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas-liquid partition chromatographyJ. Chromatogr.1963, 11, 463-471.
Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp
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Column Shape
Capillary
Active Phase(℃)
RTX-5
Retention index
938.
Temperature Control
Method
temperature ramp
Comments
10. m/0.18 mm/0.2 μm, He, 40. C @ 0.5 min, 50. K/min, 275. C @ 0.5 min
Reference
Setkova, L.Risticevic, S.Pawliszyn, J.Rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic?time-of-flight mass spectrometric method for qualitative profiling of ice wine volatile fraction II: Classification of Canadian and Czech ice wines using statistical evaluation of the dataJ. Chromatogr. A2007, 1147, 2, 224-240.

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